# Spectral Clustering

## Contents

# Spectral Clustering#

Spectral Clustering is a popular clustering algorithm that is used in unsupervised machine learning. The algorithm is based on the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian matrix and works by transforming the data into a lower-dimensional space before clustering it.

Spectral Clustering is a powerful method for clustering non-linearly separable data, and it is often used when traditional clustering algorithms like K-Means or Hierarchical Clustering are not suitable. The algorithm has the advantage of being able to handle more complex structures in the data and to identify clusters that have different shapes and sizes.

## How Does Spectral Clustering Work?#

The Spectral Clustering algorithm has two main steps. The first step is to create a similarity matrix based on the data. This matrix measures the similarity between pairs of data points, and it is used to construct the graph Laplacian matrix. The second step is to find the eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian matrix and use them to transform the data into a lower-dimensional space. The transformed data is then clustered using a traditional clustering algorithm like K-Means.

The number of clusters that Spectral Clustering should identify is often specified by the user. However, in some cases, the algorithm may automatically determine the optimal number of clusters based on the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian matrix.

## Advantages of Spectral Clustering#

Flexibility: Spectral clustering is flexible and can handle different types of data distributions and shapes, making it a good choice for a wide range of problems.

No assumption on cluster shape: Unlike other clustering algorithms, such as K-Means, Spectral Clustering does not make any assumptions about the shape of clusters. This makes it a good choice for problems where the clusters have irregular shapes.

Better handling of noisy data: Spectral Clustering is less sensitive to noise and can handle noisy data better than some other clustering algorithms.

## Disadvantages of Spectral Clustering#

Scalability: Spectral Clustering can be computationally expensive, especially for large datasets, as it requires constructing a similarity matrix and solving an eigenvalue problem.

Choice of similarity matrix: The choice of similarity matrix can have a significant impact on the clustering results, and the appropriate choice may not always be clear.

Sensitivity to parameter choice: Spectral Clustering is sensitive to the choice of parameters, such as the choice of kernel or the number of clusters, and poor parameter choices can result in suboptimal clustering results.

## Example Code#

```
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn import datasets
from sklearn.cluster import SpectralClustering
# Load the iris dataset
iris = datasets.load_iris()
X = iris.data
y = iris.target
# Create an instance of SpectralClustering
sc = SpectralClustering(n_clusters=3)
# Fit the model to the data
sc.fit(X)
# Predict the cluster labels
labels = sc.labels_
# Plot the data points colored by the predicted cluster labels
plt.scatter(X[:,0], X[:,1], c=labels)
plt.show()
```

## Conclusion#

In conclusion, Spectral Clustering is a powerful clustering algorithm that is used in unsupervised machine learning to cluster non-linearly separable data. The algorithm is based on the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian matrix and works by transforming the data into a lower-dimensional space before clustering it. Spectral Clustering has the advantage of being able to handle more complex structures in the data and to identify clusters that have different shapes and sizes.